Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Overrepresentation Of Ethnic Minorities Essay

Overrepresentation Of Ethnic Minorities Essay The overrepresentation of ethnic minorities in the Criminal Justice System resembles this: in 79.6 of captures in 2009-10 the individuals who were included grouped their ethnicity as white (Race and the CJS, 2010). In 2010 the rates for indictable offenses were higher for white people at 81% than for ethnic minorities, 74% for dark and 77% for Asians (Race and the CJS, 2010). Nonetheless, insights show that ethnic minorities are overrepresented at all phases of the Criminal Justice System. In 2009 Black individuals made up 2.7% of the populace matured 10 or more yet spoke to 8.0% of those captured in England and grains, while Asians comprised of 5.6% of the populace matured 10 or more and spoke to 5.6% of those captured in England and ridges (Race and the CJS, 2010). As ethnic minorities they are bound to be halted and looked by police, this prompts a more noteworthy likelihood of captures and thus may impact the manner in which their cases are managed as they progress through the re sulting phases of the criminal equity process. They are less inclined to be given genuine bail, and bound to be remanded in care than white guilty parties. In 2010 a higher level of ethnic minorities (Black 27%, Asian 29%, other 42%) were condemned to prompt guardianship for indictable offenses than whites (23%) (Race and the CJS, 2010). Ethnic minorities are likewise bound to get correctional sentences than white individuals and are overrepresented in parts of specific violations, for example, burglary, sedate offenses and - in certain territories guns offenses. Ethnic minorities are likewise bound to be the survivors of wrongdoings. It was found in the British wrongdoing overview 2010-11 that the danger of being a survivor of wrongdoing was higher for every single ethnic minority than white gatherings (Race and the CJS, 2010). Over a time of 5 years the danger of being a casualty of wrongdoing from the white gathering had essentially fallen by 8.0% while the decline in the danger of being a survivor of wrongdoing from ethnic gatherings was not factually critical. It is obvious that there are likewise varieties in the overrepresentation of various gatherings inside the ethnic minority classification and furthermore between sex, examples and levels of culpable additionally differ altogether (Race and the CJS, 2010). To limit this down this exploration, the article will concentrate basically on the overrepresentation of ethnic minorities in the condemning phases of the Criminal Justice System, despite the fact that it is perceived that those of Asian foundation are just marginally overrepresented in the jail populace in contrast with those of dark foundation. It doesn't mean there is no compelling reason to ask on whether they also endure segregation in the Criminal Justice System or not (Gabbidon, 2010). As per the Race Relations Act 1976, isolating against an individual dependent on racial grounds implies rewarding them less well than they ought to be dealt with; it is along these lines illicit to segregate through conveyance of merchandise, offices or administrations to the open dependent on racial grounds (John, 1987). This, be that as it may, doesn't make a difference to authorities speaking to the Crown as they are practicing forces to bar or rebuff. Judges are along these lines resistant w hen acting in legal limit; this implies the demonstration doesn't make a difference to the condemning of wrongdoers in the courts (Gabbidon, 2010). There have been questions to have this removed from enactment for it is contended that those in law implementation who have the ability to strip a person of their opportunity and freedom should act in regard of racial causes of the respondent (Michael, 1989). This assists with guaranteeing equity just as certainty of ethnic minorities in the legitimate framework. Ethnic minorities are additionally observed to be victimized by courts; they are substantially more seriously managed with regards to sentences got in courts, bound to be sent to jail than whites who have submitted a similar offense (Hood, 1992). To have the option to see if condemning is influenced by race and if segregation exists it would need to be clear that when all applicable legitimate factors are considered, a higher number of ethnic minorities are given a custodial sentence and additionally a more drawn out sentence (Marian, 1991). A system to address this overrepresentation of ethnic minorities in condemning is expected to unite offices and discover approaches to lessen it. The point of this examination article is to take a gander at writing and build up whether examples of condemning among ethnic minorities vary in a noteworthy manner from examples of condemning among whites. It will likewise take a gander at the nature and degree of the variety in condemning - if any whatsoever what may cause the variety and any accessible arrangement systems. The examination question that will be explored will at that point be: Does racial segregation exist in the condemning phases of the Criminal Justice System? It appears to be practically out of line to respond to such an exploration question without surveying general assessment on the condemning procedure and its connection to race as it tends to be accepted that their suppositions are significant despite the fact that not straightforwardly (Hough, 1998). The centrality of general assessment can be seen for instance in the perception that was made by the Lord Chief Justice, Lord Bingham. He saw that it would not appear to be directly for an adjudicator to overlook any general assessment when in court. Also the late and previous Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher noticed the significance of the joining of popular suppositions in the condemning discussion (Hough, 1998). To investigate the popular feelings on the job of race in the condemning procedures of the Criminal Justice System a poll was disseminated to a little example. The poll assisted with investigating such a possibly delicate point about race and condemning, particularly on the gr ounds that the surveys were unknown and finished in private. Key focuses were recognized that were utilized in the development of the inquiries (see informative supplement 1 for survey direct) these included accessible condemning choices for ethnic minorities, detainment for various kinds of offenses, sentence mercy and condemning length. This would sparkle light on the popular feelings and whether pressure from these assessments influences the dynamic in the condemning procedure of the Criminal Justice System and how this choice is impacted by the race of the litigant. Writing REVIEW Since the development of ethnic minorities in Britain with its top during the 1990s the enthusiasm for their advancement has expanded. The biggest portion of ethnic minorities was the individuals who grouped themselves as dark or Indian (Gabbidon, 2010). The development of ethnic minorities was not generally acknowledged and the opposition towards them was appeared through prejudice and viciousness. Not exclusively were ethnic minorities the casualties of these assaults yet they were likewise first to be captured and condemned for similar assaults (Gabbidon, 2010). The overrepresentation of ethnic minorities in wrongdoing and equity can be seen in early history, for instance through crafted by Frederick McClintocks violations of brutality (1963), which contemplates savage wrongdoings and finds that the conviction pace of individuals of color increments by 13% in a range of 10 years (McClintock,1963). This assists with advising the exploration question as it discusses the historical b ackdrop of race and separation. It is imperative to explore the strategy that happens when an individual is to be condemned, while inquiring about the impacts of race on the distinctions in condemning. This is clarified by Bowling and Phillips (2002), when they note that once a suspect has been accused of an offense at the police headquarters, their case document is sent to the crown arraignment administration (CPS) all together that they can settle on the choice about whether to continue to court with the case or to end the case wherein case the respondent doesn't need to go to court or deal with criminal indictments. Shaun L. Gabbidon draws from this further and claims it is from this that the variables that assume a job in such a choice can be resolved. As indicated by Gabbidon it is difficult to confirm that race influences or assumes a job in this choice as the race of the litigants isn't revealed (Gabbidon 2010). Demonstrating that race probably won't be focal in this choice. In any case, despite the fact tha t race probably won't have an impact at this stage, it is obvious to others, for example, Hood (1992), Mhlanga (1997) and Banks (1999) that race affects indictment, condemning and lawful portrayal. The condemning procedure is one of the significant phases of the Criminal Justice System, not exclusively is a significant choice to be made yet this is additionally how equity is viewed as being done (Ashworth, 1983). It is, in this way, critical to think about the races of the adjudicators themselves, which in England and Wales are transcendently white. This prompts quick presumptions that ethnic minorities are then naturally off guard (Mathews, 2009). Investigation into this issue may show minimal inclination in race and condemning, yet it is contended that if past offenses and the earnestness of the case are thought of, ethnic minorities are well on the way to get a harsher sentence (Blumstein, 1982). Ethnic minorities are believed to be fundamentally the same as, for instance with regards to social financial attributes and this might be viewed as influencing and additionally impacting the condemning choice. This can be found in an investigation led by Imogen Brown and Roy Hullin (1992). They took a gander at the dynamic procedure of more than 3,000 litigants, from this they found that over half of the dark respondents were jobless, this being more than twofold that of white or Asian respondents was viewed as impacting the choice (Brown and Hullin, 1992). The request on the job race has on condemning is expanded in the examination by Roger Hood (1992). Hood needed to discover the race impact of condemning and to do so he took a gander at 2,884 respondents who showed up in various Crown Courts in the West Midlands. The investigation was set to identif

Saturday, August 22, 2020

euthanasia outline essays

killing framework articles B. intentional end of life by another by express solicitation of individual who bites the dust C. euthanasia has numerous implications because of good/ethincal/strict terms-mass disarray A. passive willful extermination accelerating passing of individual by pulling back some type of life support 2. stopping clinical methods, meds, and so forth. 5. most normal offering morphine to patient to control torment however causing a sooner passing (given to individuals who are in critical condition or in a vegetative state) B. active willful extermination making demise through direct activity with reaction a solicitation from that individual, benevolence slaughtering C. physician helped self destruction doctor supplies information as well as methods for ending it all model: deadly portion of dozing pills, carbon monoxide gas D. involuntary killing slaughtering of individual without wanting to type of homicide A. quality of human life is a higher priority than length of life B. death is a decent clinical treatment b/c it stops the enduring of the patient C. euthanasia may turn into a financial need because of the expansion of new illnesses, AIDS, and their significant expenses D. termination of life of creatures  ¡putting it out if its miseryâ ¡-yet with regards to people, we permit forbearing to make sure they can live 1. people in vegetative state have delayed existences which are meaning less A. euthanasia is simply one more term for homicide 1. the demise of people ought to be in the hands of god not ourselves 2. killing isn't advocated using any and all means C. who is to choose when the patientâ ¡s mind is oblivious D. if willful extermination is permitted, individuals might be under the feeling that self destruction ... <!

Sunday, July 26, 2020

Types of Antidepressants for Panic Disorder

Types of Antidepressants for Panic Disorder Panic Disorder Treatment Print Classes of Antidepressants for Treating Panic Disorder By Katharina Star, PhD facebook linkedin Katharina Star, PhD, is an expert on anxiety and panic disorder. Dr. Star is a professional counselor, and she is trained in creative art therapies and mindfulness. Learn about our editorial policy Katharina Star, PhD Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on June 10, 2015 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on October 04, 2019 Arman Zhenikeyev/Getty Images More in Panic Disorder Treatment Symptoms Diagnosis Coping Related Conditions When first introduced in the 1950s, antidepressant medication was used to help reduce the symptoms of depression. However, research has shown that antidepressants can effectively treat a variety of mood and anxiety disorders. Antidepressants are currently one of the most common treatment options for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia). How Antidepressants Treat Panic Disorder Neurotransmitters are naturally-occurring chemicals in the brain and are considered to be imbalanced for people with mood and anxiety disorders. Antidepressants work by affecting these neurotransmitters in a way that can help reduce anxiety and decrease the frequency and intensity of panic attacks. Different classes of antidepressants influence various types of neurotransmitters. The most frequently prescribed groups of antidepressants for panic disorder include the following. The Top Treatment Options for Panic Disorder Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or SSRIs, are a popular type of antidepressant that can be used to treat panic disorder. SSRIs work to balance serotonin, a neurotransmitter thats associated with the regulation of several bodily functions, including mood and sleep. By preventing your brain cells from absorbing serotonin, SSRIs can assist in enhancing mood and reducing feelings of panic and anxiety. SSRIs were first introduced in the United States in the 1980s and have continued to remain a popular treatment option for numerous mental health disorders. SSRIs are often preferred due to their safety, effectiveness, and likelihood of producing fewer side effects than other types of antidepressants. Some of the most common SSRIs include: Prozac (fluoxetine)Zoloft (sertraline)Paxil (paroxetine)Celexa (citalopram) How SSRIs Are Used to Treat Panic Disorder Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs) Tricyclic antidepressants, or TCAs, originated in the 1950s. Despite becoming less popular since the introduction of SSRIs, TCAs are still used to successfully treat anxiety and mood disorders. Similar to SSRIs, TCAs also work to balance serotonin levels. TCAs also affect norepinephrine, a neurotransmitter linked to alertness and the fight-or-flight stress response. Some common TCAs include: Elavil (amitriptyline)Asendin (amoxapine)Norpramin (desipramine)Adapin, Sinequan (doxepin)Tofranil (imipramine)Pamelor (nortriptyline)Vivactil (protriptyline)Surmontil (trimipramine) Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs) First available in the 1950s, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are one of the earliest types of antidepressants. Due to the many dietary restrictions and potentially dangerous drug interactions associated with MAOIs, SSRIs and TCAs are often preferred over them. MAOIs are, however, still considered to be effective in treating conditions related to mood and anxiety. Like TCAs, MAOIs influence the availability of serotonin and norepinephrine. MAOIs additionally stabilize dopamine, a neurotransmitter thats linked to a variety of functions, such as a persons energy levels, physical movements, and feelings of motivation. Some common MAOIs include: Nardil (phenelzine)Parnate (tranylcypromine)Marplan (isocarboxazid)Emsam (selegiline) Antidepressants and Suicide Risk A warning was issued in 2007 by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) after research showed a link between antidepressant use and the risk of suicide. Black Box Warning The FDA requires a black box warning on all  antidepressants  because of an increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior in young adults, between ages 18 and 24, during initial treatment (first one to two months of therapy).   Most people on antidepressants will not run into this risk. However, young people just beginning on an antidepressant should be carefully monitored for increased depression, thoughts of suicide, and any unusual behaviors. Always consult your doctor if you have any questions and/or concerns about your antidepressant prescription.

Friday, May 22, 2020

The ADA Case Study - 735 Words

The ADA has three requirements for a disability, and employee if covered under the ADA if they meet just one of the requirements; 1. A physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one of more major life actives 2. A record of such an impairment 3. Being regarded as having such an impairment Even with this broad definition, pregnancy simply isn’t a disability and a pregnant employee wouldn’t be guaranteed protection. In 2008 the ADAAA was introduced which made it easier for pregnant women who suffered pregnancy related disabilities to establish they do have disabilities and are entitled to reasonable accommodations under the ADA (Eeoc.gov, 2017). These accommodations would cover Abby’s need to have a 10lb lifting restriction as†¦show more content†¦It goes on to state that it is the burden of the employer to demonstrate a reason they cannot reasonably accommodate an employee’s beliefs and practices without undue hardships (Walsh, 2014). Gunther would first need to establish prima facie of failure to reasonably accommodate religion. 1. The existence of a sincere religious belief or practice that conflicts with an employment requirement 2. The employer was informed of the conflicting belief or practice 3. The employee or applicant suffered an adverse employment outcome because of adhering to the religious belief or practice Once Gunther established prima facie, Central Perk would have to show the following: 1. A reasonable accommodation was offered but not accepted 2. No reasonable accommodation without undue hardship was available† (Walsh, 2014) The existence of a sincere religious belief or practice that conflicts with an employment requirement Even though Kemet is not a widely known religion, Gunther has demonstrated the sincere religious belief required by the EEOC. The tattoos he has are required by his religion and any concealment of the tattoos runs contrary to its belief system. The employer was informed of the conflicting belief or practice Gunther’s tattoos have never been discussed with his current manager, which indicates he never informed Central Perk of the possible conflict. Employees are required toShow MoreRelatedADA Case Study701 Words   |  3 Pagesmining, and maritime. After researching ADA’s website I found the current ADA regulations and past regulations regarding prohibiting discrimination against individuals with disabilities. I believe it’s important to oversee the development within ADA regulations over a period of time to ensure proper needs and services to patients. I find it interesting that ADA’s website publishes present cases and the information on the case to allow others to become aware of the discrimination complaints that occursRead MoreAda Concerns Case Study . The Problem(S) Or Issue(S) At1703 Words   |  7 PagesADA Concerns Case Study The problem(s) or issue(s) at the core of the case: Kenneth Jorgenson had been an Automotive Mechanic II with the Equipment Services Department of Maricopa County in Arizona since July 1, 1999. About three years later on May 16, 2003 Ken Jorgenson became injured job as he lifted a battery out of a box for Kenneth Jorgenson things at work became complicated. On June 27, Jorgenson underwent surgery and was in hospitalized eight days; he subsequently returned to workRead MoreThe Rate Of Discrimination At Work Place With People With Disabilities Essay1361 Words   |  6 PagesResearch Paper is to review or examined the rate of disability Discrimination including the case studies or societal reaction to the disability discrimination. This Research review the rate of discrimination at work place with people having disabilities. The paper mainly focus on the examination on the rate of Employment disability discrimination. Although It been 20 years Americans with Disabilities Act ( ADA) 1990 was passed which protect the civil right of disable people and prohibit the discriminationRead MoreDiabetes : Medical Nutrition Therapy And Prevention1174 Words   |  5 PagesType 2 Diabetes: Medical Nutrition Therapy Prevention The American Diabetes Association (ADA) conducted a 2012 study measuring the â€Å"Economic Cost of Diabetes in the U.S.,† the results showed a $245 billion financial  ¬-encumbrance from the use of health resources and lost productivity over a 5 year period (American Diabetes, 2013). The cost amounts â€Å"accounts for more than 1 in 5 health care dollars in the U.S.,† and about 62% of cost being covered by government insurance (American Diabetes, 2013)Read MoreThe Rate Of Discrimination At Work Place With People With Disabilities Essay1673 Words   |  7 Pagesdiscrimination – Case studies and rate examined. Introduction: The main purpose to write the Research Paper is to review or examined the rate of disability Discrimination including the case studies or societal reaction to the disability discrimination. This Research review the rate of discrimination at work place with people having disabilities. The paper mainly focus on the examination on the rate of Employment disability discrimination. Although It been 20 years Americans with Disabilities Act ( ADA) 1990Read MoreThe Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): A Good Start Essay1081 Words   |  5 Pagesaccommodations for the employee (ADA Home Page). Several of the stated sections include topics such as harassment on grounds of a disability, adjustments to the workplace, fair treatment, and victimizing. The topic of adjustments has many specifications because of the variety of changes that may be required for certain individuals (ADA Home Page). However, there have been lawsuits filed because an employer has refused making the alterations for his/her employee. In one case, Board of Trustees v. GarrettRead MoreUse of Hemoglobin A1C to Diagnose Diabetes Essay1711 Words   |  7 Pagesfrom the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, and the International Diabetes Federation, released a report that recommended the use of Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) to diagnose diabetes (American Diabetes Association [ADA], 2013; International Expert Committee, 2009). HbA1c is a widely used marker of chronic glycemia, because it reflects an individual’s average blood glucose levels over a 2-3 month time period (ADA, 2013). Also, HbA1c is largely used asRead MoreMobileye1613 Words   |  7 PagesMobil Eye Case A) Mobileye, founded by Amnon Shashua and Ziv Aviram, is a company leading the market in technologically advanced software algorithms, system-on-chips, and applications customized to extensively process visual information for the use of advanced driver assistance systems, or ADAS. Mobileye is the market leader for ADAS because of its unmatched customer value proposition, or CVP; focusing on continuously improving safety, avoiding accidents, and saving lives in an increasingly affordableRead MoreThe Americans With Disabilities Act1577 Words   |  7 PagesAmericans with Disabilities Act I Introduction The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is federal legislation designed to prevent discrimination against disabled people. It applies to all disabled persons, no matter the nature of their disability. This paper examines the ADA and discusses some of the ramifications of the legislation. II Americans with Disabilities Act The Americans with Disabilities Act (hereafter ADA) was enacted in 1990, and its purpose is stated thusly: â€Å"The Americans with DisabilitiesRead MoreDiabetes Is A Serious Health Problem Gaining Increasing Global Attention From Governments Public Health Organizations1446 Words   |  6 Pagesefforts in publicising helpful knowledge and practices concerning diabetes to improve the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria (IDF, n.d.). Among the different types of diabetes, Type 2 diabetes is the most common - accounting up to 95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes (CDC, 2015). Researches have shown that Type 2 diabetes is a preventable health disorder (Chatterton, et al., 2012; Alouki, et al., 2016) nevertheless, one out of eleven people has diabetes (IDF, 2015b). Hence the effectiveness of the role

Friday, May 8, 2020

Is Falling Failure or Freedom Essay - 1279 Words

Is Falling Failure or Freedom? What defines a â€Å"fall†? Some would say that a fall is a freeing from the restrictions of the oppression of a supreme being. Others would say that a fall is the punishment that comes from foolishly disobeying the one who is in authority over you. The falls in book nine of â€Å"Paradise Lost† and â€Å"Othello† both have parallels in the reasons and methods in which revenge was carried out and perfection was destroyed. But these stories end with different victors and very different balances of power. The fall of â€Å"Paradise Lost† does have motives and patterns common with the fall of â€Å"Othello.† Each story establishes the authority of a Supreme Being, God the creator and Othello respectively. God the creator made†¦show more content†¦God tells Adam and Eve that they may eat of any tree in the garden, but they must not eat of the tree in the middle of the garden, which is the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. God told Adam and Eve that if they ate of the tree they would surely die. Satan, who is jealous of the position of glory that God has put man in, plots his revenge against God. Satan wants to destroy the perfection of God’s creation, and cause the consequences of disobedience to come upon mankind as it did upon him at the time of his own rebellion against God. Satan had been cast out of heaven and eternally damned to hell, and he planned that man would have to face the same fate if they would disobey God. Satan deceived Eve and Eve d isobeyed God, and which event signified the fall of man. The death God said would come if they ate the fruit was not a physical death, but a spiritual death that would affect life on earth and the fate of man after death. To the earth it brought pain and sorrow, greed, jealousy, sin, anger, and any unpleasant feeling or unfulfilling work. Eternally, man’s disobedience brought exactly what Satan wished for, the damnation of imperfect mankind to an eternity in hell, only because God is perfect and can not look upon imperfection. But the actual end of the story is not in line with this loss of hope. The end is what differs greatly from the end of â€Å"Othello.† In â€Å"Othello†, Iago is jealous of the fact that OthelloShow MoreRelatedKafkas The Metamorphosis : Societal Normality Versus The Individual1626 Words   |  7 PagesSocietal Normality versus the Individual â€Å"Conformity is the jailer of freedom and the enemy of growth.† Although perhaps a trivial interpretation of the role of conformity, John F. Kennedy captures the essence of Kafka’s The Metamorphosis by identifying the principle struggle faced by Gregor as he experiences life following his inexplicable transformation â€Å"into a horrible vermin.†(1) The Metamorphosis explores the existential dichotomy between the societal pressure of conformity and the individualsRead MoreThe Tenth Amendment Of The United States Education System975 Words   |  4 Pagesinternational comparisons showed that the United States was falling behind and scoring lower in tests compared to other areas. In the US itself, the 50 states were also found to have differences in their educational levels. Some states were scoring significantly higher than others. There were also differences in groups of students based on race, ethnicity, and income based on which state people were from (Bosl augh, 2015). After seeing how the US was falling behind in the educational system, The No Child LeftRead MoreTheme Of Larisa Shepitkos Wings825 Words   |  4 Pagesas a tragedy and a triumph (23). Larisa Shepitko’s Wings (1966) is about a female war veteran’s identity crisis in the post-war society. It depicts the ambivalent treatment of women in the patriarchal society, in which women who experience greater freedom in wartime and are expected to assume a more restrained domestic role. The film shows this internal conflict of the protagonist, Nadezhda Petrukhina, through a narration of her struggles in the post-war life and her nostalgia for the war. The beginningRead MoreSnow Falling on Cedars, The Greasy Pole and To Kill a Mockingbird Compared1164 Words   |  5 PagesThrough composers use of conflicting perspectives, a diverse set of values are presented, offering responders insight and a deeper understanding of political, social and economic incongruities within society. David Guterson’s courtroom drama, Snow Falling On Cedars (1994) utilises the symbolic setting of the court trial and the island of San Piedro as a microcosm to reflect the embedded racial discrimination within American society. The characterisation of Ishmael, as an embittered individual allowsRead MoreIndividualism In Kate Chopin ´s The Awakening Essay1416 Words   |  6 Pagesone of hopeless resignation as he looked toward a distant bird wining its flight away from him† (Chopin 25-26). Interestingly enough, Edna identified with the abandoned man, focusing on his loneliness. This vision not only shows Edna’s desire for freedom from the roles of wife and mother, but also foreshadows the loneliness she will encounter when she attempts to gain the same independence as a man has. From the very beginning of the novel, Edna’s caged position was symbolized with the â€Å"green andRead MoreHappy Birthday, By Samuel Johnson, And When I Was One And Twenty1480 Words   |  6 Pagesof advisory to new 21-year-olds, embodying the new possibilities and freedoms, yet also detailing some cautions to take along with new-found responsibilities. Both of these works give counsel and warning about joys and responsibilities of turning 21, however, Johnson s rendition mainly portrays the joys and excitement of a gained freedom, while Housman stresses the importance of avoiding foolish mistakes such as carelessly falling in love. Both of these poems serve to enlighten a new 21-year-oldRead MoreSummary : Fail And Fail Back By Allan H. Meltzer1071 Words   |  5 Pagessluggish growth, high inflation, and the loss of freedom... Unhappy voters elected a president who promised to restore the market system, private property, and personal freedom.† (Meltzer). Argentina, as evident in this text, took on its own twist on socialism and quickly went downhill. This and the fact that the citizens of Argentina rebuke socialism so much as to vote for a president who strongly opposes authoritarianism displays the grand failure and in turn negatively impacts the audience’s viewpointRead MoreAnalysis Of Edith Wharton s House Of Mirth 958 Words   |  4 Pagesgender roles that society had established. The limits of her sex contribute to her inevitable failure by the end of the novel but the knowledge of them aided her deconstructing her role as a woman. This â€Å"double consciousness† is an advanta ge since she is able to manipulate the upper class, but the facade she tries to maintain in order to achieve her goal-- financial stability--contributes to her falling victim to the society she tried to configure to her own desires. In this paper, I will argue howRead MoreHow Success Breaks Down Into Life1678 Words   |  7 Pagesit is not enough to fulfill one’s life. â€Å"It is true that money cannot buy happiness but it does make it possible for you to enjoy the best that the world has to offer.† – George S. Clason. Have you ever thought what if the secret to success is a failure? Though, what is so, a wildly successful man, also failed often and badly. Perhaps, it has always been lying there; the larger lesson of one s life: Sometimes you have to fail to succeed. No one comes forth at the top. Even those born under a luckyRead MoreTheir Eyes Were Watching God1335 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿Finding love and freedom in the nature â€Å"The right of nature is the liberty each man hath to use his own power, as he will himself, for the preservation of his own nature; that is to say, of his own life† (Hobbes). In this quote, it demonstrates that nature creates every creature with their own power. Nature would punish those people who take power from others.In Their Eyes Were Watching God, Zora Neale Hurston tells us a story about Janie who has three relationships with three different men, she

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Job as a Child Protective Investigator (CPI) Free Essays

string(81) " and written communication as forms of disseminating information throughout CPS\." I will be talking about my current job as a Child Protective Investigator (CPI) also known as Child Protective Services (or CPS). This is the governmental agency that is tasked with investigating child abuse or neglect. The primary concern of a CPI is the safety of the child; they do this by assessing the risk involved. We will write a custom essay sample on Job as a Child Protective Investigator (CPI) or any similar topic only for you Order Now By weighing that risk the CPI has to make the decision rather to remove the children or child from the home or place services within the home that will allow them to function as a family in a more productive manner. Once the CPI has made the decision to remove the child or children, the next step in the process is find and create a plan that will eventually return the child to a more proficient and safer family environment. The CPI will assign the family to a caseworker who is tasked with developing a plan to administer to the parents that will educate them on better ways to care for the children and meet all their needs, and create and environment free from abuse or neglect. CPI’s deal with a variety of families, with different backgrounds, values, religions, cultures and beliefs, which have a bearing on the way they parent; this means that CPS has be flexible and understanding when it comes to dealing with the problems they face within these family structures. The fact is that the American population is continually changing for many reasons such as; ethnically, culturally, racially, and linguistically based on the diverse populations that are a part of the US fabric. CPS organizations must create and implement a better and improving systemic change in order to understand and meet the needs of this diverse population of families. In this ever changing environment CPS must be even better prepared and become an even more effective communicator when it comes to helping and working with our families and providers. I have been working as a CPI for over 2  ½ years and will share with you what I think this organization operates like and what makes it tick. I will evaluate the Organizational Behavior of Child Protective Services and explain the weakness or strengths I have faced since being a part of this organization. First what is Organizational Behavior? It is defined as the study and employment of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations. Organizational behavior is not the evaluation of how the organization will behave, but rather the evaluation of the people or individuals behavior within the organizational setting. They study the behavior of the individuals as well as group settings. The study and purpose of organizational behavior is for the leaders to gain a better understanding of those things that may change, interrupt or influence individual and sectional dynamics within a company setting so that the organization can become a more effective and proficient business. A large part of organizational behavior is researching and evaluating as to provide leaders with the needed resources, information and tools they will have to have in order to successfully train, select and retain personal in a manner that would benefit both the personal and the organization. Organizational culture is driven by â€Å"competition and a strong desire to deliver results and accomplish goals†. (Kinicki. and Kreitner 2009, pg. 43). I believe that based on the child Protective services (CPS) organizational culture the concept used is the ‘salad bowl’ because of the diversity within the organization. I say this because many of the CPI’s and workers are of different races, cultures, ages, sexual orientation, gender, ethnicity and physical ability. I believe that this diverse culture is very good for this organization it provides a very positive environment which translates into positive productivity. CPI’s use multiple types of strategies and steps to ensure good production and good service. Such as reading the families background if they had a prior case as many of them do and checking law enforcement reports to see what are the families issues, culture and background prior to going out on the case which will give the CPI a better insight on the type of family and the concerns they are facing. I believe the culture of CPS as an organization is evident by the values, norms, organizational beliefs, goals and many other primary factors. This also relates to all internal interactions and any informal and formal implementation. In CPS there is a strong mutual respect for each other and the CPI’s are supported, encouraged allowed to do what they think is needed to meet the family and organizational goals and to continue to develop and hone their skills in the field. Because CPI’s work primarily alone in the field, they are entrusted with decision-making and execution in the absence of their leaders. Many times the CPI will have to attack a problem and make a decision on the spot and may not be able to get into contact with the supervisor therefore leaders must have the type of people they can trust and rely on to make the best decision without guidance. In CPS you can see that the organizations culture is evident in their goals, mission statement, integrity, standards, values, and ethics. The mission statement of CPS is to provide proficient, caring and productive services to the protection of children and their families; to seek the improvement and protection of abused children and to seek reunification for the families and provide family the education tools required for the child to remain in the home; and to meet and exceed the needs of the families using innovative and unique products, resources and services. To create and provide an equal, balanced and great place for the CPIs to work and excel. Because of the different cultures and people CPI’s face in this business there are multiple types of communication used and embraced by CPS. CPS uses a variety of both verbal and written communication as forms of disseminating information throughout CPS. You read "Job as a Child Protective Investigator (CPI)" in category "Papers" The type of communication that is used is dependent upon the importance of information and how quickly it needs to be provided. Some of these communication devices are: emails, brochures, company websites, meetings, notice boards, letters, telephone, and texting. What the CPS tries to do is to ensure that the communication is always open and that it represents and displays the culture of CPS. Communication devices play a major role in CPS, because many of the families we come into contact with have disabilities which may require a different type of communication, such as sign language interpreters, virtual websites may have to be used because the interpreter may be in another state, like interpreters for people that speak different languages and so on. It is vital to be able to communicate the message you are trying to convey to these families in a manner they can relate to, because bad communication can be destructive to the fabric of this family and there well-being. CPS believes that the key to the success of this organization is to ensure effective leadership and that the leaders have strong leadership, communication, management, and people skills, as well as be compassionate and caring when it comes to child protection. In CPS, the leadership hierarchical of authority flows from the upper management down to the CPI’s and their supervisors. But this process of leadership is of a democratic type leadership because CPI’s and workers have the chance to voice their concerns and participate in decisions making that will affect the organization. But if conflict arises the final decision is made by the supervisors and higher. The higher hierarchical do make the decision on policies and procedures but will usually have meeting and conferences asking the opinions and concerns about upcoming changes, if it is something that is coming down the pipeline that is more of a directive they will try to give the organization the time and information needed to prepare for this change in policy or procedures. Leadership tries to work with CPI’s and try and understand what their concerns are as they are the ones dealing with the everyday changes within the community and families on a day to day basis. It is not just important for the leaders to be in touch with their CPI’s, but to be able to relate to the issues and concerns they have about what they are seeing in the field. If a leader shows the compassion, understanding and empathy to what their CPI’s is going through, they will without a doubt gain their loyalty and trust. If CPI’s feel they cannot trust their supervisors they have an open door policy for CPI’s to come in and voice their concerns without reprisal. CPS has a code of conduct which applies to all members of the organization and is enforced if abused. These Codes of Conduct embodies all the ethical policies and procedures to be followed. This code of conduct makes CPIs and other workers of CPS feel they have a voice and make them feel empowered and not afraid to attack a situation or problem. CPS also has a Whistle blowers protection policies implemented within this organization. I think this policy creates trust within the organization and its leadership, and CPI’s feel that they are an asset to the company and are valued. When it comes to motivation how to motivate people varies from person to person; but it is vital to the success of a company that the leaders have the ability to motivate their CPIs and workers in order to be successful and more productive. The best way for leaders to do this is to know their people and what makes them tick. Because I may be motivated by time off and another person may be motivated by money. In CPS motivation is needed and imperative for CPI’s to go out day in and day out and be productive when facing such grim situations. For instance I remember a week where I was being overwhelmed with cases, working late hours every day, and I ran into a case where a 6 year old girl was being molested by the step-father and the uncle and the mother was aware of it. This case really drained me and it took everything I had as a man and a person to get up the next day and go back out to do this job. I remember my supervisor called me into the office and said â€Å"I can see this week has been hard on you; take the day off and go home and be with your family, I got your cases for the day†. This meant a lot to me and it was the motivation I needed to get through another day when I returned, it was the time off I needed and my supervisor showed me he understood and cared for what I was going through. From that day on there was nothing he could ask me I would not do, he earned my respect and loyalty. This is part of the culture that is CPS, CPI’s are given their assignments and goals and what are expected of them and if needed, to work as groups. CPI’s are given continuous training to improve their knowledge and skills. CPS tries and implements incentives and rewards, promotions are available if you are productive and efficient in your job performance. CPI’s are given Pay raises, time off and other incentives as a form to motivate them. CPI privacy is safeguarded through the CPS compliance officer; this is an important factor to CPI’s as they deal with sensitive situations. CPI’s has the responsibility of making critical decisions when it comes to child protection. What this means is CPI’s has to have strong decision making skills, this is accomplished by them knowing and understanding their emotional quotient. CPS encourages the CPI’s to seek this both personally and professionally by using classes provided on the website, through seminars, sessions and provided guest speakers. When CPI’s and workers are aware and in control of their feelings and emotions it resonates throughout the organization and they are much more productive and confident. It is important that CPI’s have the ability to excess their interpersonal and intrapersonal emotions to help them to become a more well-rounded CPI within their jobs. They can do this by being more self-aware, self-regulated, self- motivated, having stronger social skills and being empathetic towards the cases and families that encounter. CPS provides CPI’s with emotional training workshops and training coaches to help them become more proficient and productive. For instance I remember when I first got this job, when I received the report on the family and looked at what some of the prior reports were I found myself forming opinions about the family before I ever met them or conducted the investigation into the allegations. My supervisor taught me that it is important to keep your personal feeling out of the process and find the truth and only deal with the truth. Because people change over time and allegations are just that allegations until they are proven otherwise. This is the best advice I got when it came to this job and the knowledge I needed to be a more productive investigator. CPS is not a virtual organization but does use virtual organizational elements to enhance the technical experience needed to keep up in this fast pace and growing organization. We are a very large organization and are spreaded out through several regions, not only are we as child protective investigators spread thin; we are in contact and have to use many other resources and organizations that help us provide services to our clients and families. These other entities and organizations include , medical personal, Psychologist and other mental personal and agencies, law enforcement, counselors, schools, lawyers and non-profit agencies to name a few. So when we have what we call a staffing which involves many of these different people and organizations, they are spread out all over the city and state. So this can be very difficult to get them all in one place based on each individual busy schedule. This is where the virtual elements came in as a manner in which to provide a tool that allows us to all be in different places and still be able to come together and address an issue. We are able to do this through virtual elements like; virtual meetings, classes, teleconferences, virtual speaker conferences, etc†¦ to be able to reach and communicate with other CPS personal and offices around the country and state. By using virtual elements it saves time, resources and money and we can effectively reach our goals and get out our message to a large audience with little complication. In conclusion, I think it is imperative that an organization should continuously evaluate their organizational behavior as a manner of determining how effective their process and business policies and procedures are doing. You must try and understand what are the strengths and weaknesses of your organizations performance and what is needed to fix it so your organization can move forward in a positive and successful manner. CPS is an organization that cannot afford to fall behind or lack in any form of technical, environmental or any other change as it relates to the services they provide to families. CPS has a very important job and it requires us to be proficient, up to date and fully trained so we can ensure that nothing but the best service is being provided to children who are being abused and families that require assistance. I believe this is the kind of job that requires people that care, are empathetic, and have a burning need to help others because we cannot afford to drop the ball when it comes to children safety. How to cite Job as a Child Protective Investigator (CPI), Papers

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Natural Birth free essay sample

Although it remains rare in the United States, planned home birth has drawn increasing attention and criticism in the mainstream media and has come under attack from organized medicine. Yet, recent peer-reviewed studies contribute to the evidence base supporting home birth as a safe option for low-risk women attended by skilled midwifes. I hope to achieve this with a thorough background of medical mistakes that has dehumanized the birthing process for women. It is the purpose of this paper to prove that home births are just as safe as hospital births in low risk women. Home birth with a trained midwife should be an option available to low-risk women. This paper will focus on the history on medicine replacing midwives, the current era of obstetrics and finally the midwives and home birth. Natural Birth: The Ultimate Sacrifice The birth of a child is an experience that most men and women in the United States will go through. We will write a custom essay sample on Natural Birth or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It is a joyous occasion; however, it can also be a point in one’s life where they are overwhelmed with information and many things to do. Not only are expectant parents having to get their house ready and having to learn numerous things about pregnancy an new baby care, they also must become informed about the endless array of test, medical procedures, and standards of practice commonly used in the field of obstetrics today. Many do not have the time to learn about all the test, procedures and interventions; rather they trust their care provider’s opinion or what friends or family members who have already had children tell them. Most of these expectant parents do not consider delivery outside of a hospital for several reasons, some being perceived safety, hospital birth being standard, or not knowing that there was another option. It is typical; most expectant parents do not challenge or question anything obstetricians or the hospital staff tells them is best for their baby. Many do not challenge or question the use of test, procedures and other interventions because these practices have become so common and accepted today that their use is expected and their safety is rarely challenged. Many women who choose to have a hospital birth expect to have an IV, electronic fetal monitoring and an epidural because the use of these procedures has become so common and standard that their safety is automatically assumed. But because something is widely used and accepted does not mean that it is safe. To best illustrate this point think back to when prophylactic forceps deliveries were common and therefore assumed safe. It took decades before the obstetric community finally agreed that prophylactic forceps deliveries were not in the best of interest of mothers and babies. But what about the procedures and interventions used today: are they safe? Exploring the option of home and birthing center births with midwives for low-risk women should be at the core of the national health care reform and research. Instead, several generations of high-tech, low-touch birth and a pervasive cultural belief that birth is imminently dangerous – even in healthy, low-risk women – has led to powerful cultural blinders that limit options for women. The decision to have a natural birth should be embraced and not ostracized because it is not the social norm. Giving birth carries a much bigger impact than a onetime mere medical event. It is the purpose of this paper to pay respect to the hundreds of women that ripple the waters in exchange for the ultimate experience. For the vast majority of history, childbirth has been a â€Å"woman’s thing† and was attended by midwives at home. The word midwife itself means with the woman. Men themselves were not allowed in the birth chamber and thus were excluded from witnessing this uniquely female act. This way of practice remained unchanged for most of history as we know it. Men did began making their way into childbirth; however, and within a short period of time, surgeon and physician guilds were formed. Eventually birth was pushed from home to hospital and out of control of the ones it meant the most to. The first men to enter the birth chamber were not doctors; they were the barber-surgeons who were, as their name says, hair cutters and beard shavers; however, the also had skills which included using their knives and other tools for bloodletting and extracting dead babies (Blumenfeld-Kosinski 1990). When it became obvious that the mother or child was going to die because she could not deliver the baby, the doctor-surgeons were called in t attempt to save a life. They would use their tools to take the baby out of the woman’s body in pieces: the cranioclast would crush open the baby’s skull, the crochets would dismember it and remove it in pieces. Eventually a guild of surgeons formed in England around 1540 and made statute that specifically stated, â€Å"No carpenter, smith, weaver, or woman shall practice surgery† (Mitford 1992). Midwifery was the first field of medicine taught in medical schools and there was no standard curriculum; therefore, many of the new doctors were inadequately trained Medical school training did not include clinical training and the vast majority of new doctors had not witnessed on solitary delivery when that attended their first paying patient and because of this most of the early doctors did more harm than good (Wertz and Wertz 1989). New interventions continued into the twentieth century. And along with this time period of great advances in health came breakthrough new medical interventions into childbirth, each with their own unrecognized and potentially dangerous risks and side effects. How can anyone forget the physical, emotional, and psychological results of DES (diethylstilbestrol), x-rays, discouraged breastfeeding, separation of families during labor and the belief that babies didn’t feel pain. Diethylstilbestrol, more commonly known as DES, was the first synthetic estrogen ever synthesized and prescribed to millions of pregnant women between 1938 and 1971. Believing that low levels of estrogen caused miscarriages, DES was hailed as a wonder drug because it supposedly prevented miscarriages, was cheap to produce and could be taken orally. In 1947, under much pressure from major drug companies, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved DES for use during pregnancy. In 1952, questions concerning the effectiveness of DES in preventing miscarriages were raised. The appearance of clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA) began appearing in young women in 1901; and in 1971. The FDA then advised against the use of DES during pregnancy but some physicians continued to prescribe the drug to pregnant women. The DES incident was an embarrassment to the FDA (Northrup 1994). The women who took DES were at an increased risk for breast cancer. And as this paper will show, this was just the tip of the iceberg. Following DES, x-rays were introduced. They were considered safe and commonly used for almost 50 years-until the negative consequences on embryogenesis, carcinogenesis and genetic mutations were discovered in the late 1950’s. Fetuses and children are ten to twenty times more susceptible to the carcinogenic effects of radiation because their cells are rapidly dividing, and children born to mothers who had x-rays have a higher incidence of leukemia, Down’s syndrome, and among the daughters, more miscarriages and fetal deaths during their childbearing years. The genetic mutations that occurred can be passed down to subsequent generations (Cunningham 1997). X-rays were used for everything from determining gestational age, multiple pregnancy, presentation of baby, and most commonly, pelvic measurements of the mother, all of which could have been determined by less intrusive ways. Obstetricians, and pediatricians, in this era believed that babies did not feel pain and if there is one thing even the most uneducated person knows, it is that babies do feel pain. The â€Å"no pain† belief was so strong that surgical procedures were done without anesthesia or anesthetic. And what is even more appalling about this is that circumcision without pain relief for infant boys continued beyond this era and into the 1990’s and some speculate that anesthesia/anesthetic is not used 100% of the time even today (Ritter 1992). According to current ethical guidelines, surgical procedures cannot be performed on research animals without anesthesia. The following is a statement made by Marilyn Milos after viewing an infant circumcision without any pain relief: †¦The silence was broken by a piercing scream-the baby’s reaction to having his foreskin pinched and crushed as the doctor attached the clamps to his penis. The shriek intensified when the doctor inserted an instrument between the foreskin and the glans, tearing the two structures apart†¦the baby started shaking his head back and forth- the only part of his body free to move-as the doctor used another clamp to crush the foreskin lengthwise, which he then cut†¦The baby began to gasp and choke, breathless from his screams. How could anyone say circumcision is painless when the suffering is so obvious†¦? (Milos ) But yet, physicians felt that the response express by the infant during the circumcision were not due to pain. Thankfully, today most circumcisions are performed with some form of pain relief and physicians acknowledge that babies do feel pain. In the current era of medicine and child birth, there are various methods used but this paper will focus on those with the worst outcomes. Amniotomy, the artificial rupturing of membranes, is performed by obstetricians who wish to speed up the natural process of labor, check for signs of fetal distress or for the insertion of an internal fetal monitor. While amniotomy does in fact cause labor to speed up, the complications include cord prolapsed in which the umbilical cord comes down before the baby and results in a life-threatening situation typically requiring an emergency cesarean, cord compression during contractions, greater head molding and an effect on the fetal heart rate ( Goer 1995). It is common place in today’s hospital to keep laboring women from eating and drinking during labor. The belief surrounding the policy of nothing by mouth is fear that a woman under general anesthesia will aspirate the stomach contents. Today general anesthesia has been replaced with epidural anesthesia, thus eliminating the use of general anesthesia and the chance of aspiration. The researchers of one study stated that eating and drinking in labor are not always a factor in maternal aspiration but faulty anesthesia administration almost always is ( Broach and Newton 1988). What is puzzling is that it is not humane to let a woman experience some pain during labor, but it is human to let her starve during a physically demanding process in her life. The national cesarean section in 1965 was at 4. 5% and has quickly risen to 32% as of 2011 (Hamilton et al. 2012). It is believed by many in the medical community that cesareans sections reduce the perinatal mortality rate and many also believe that cesarean delivery is safer for the baby, but neither of these are true. Cesarean sections do have adverse effects on both mother and baby when compared with a vaginal delivery. The risks to the mother, other than that of increased maternal mortality, include damage to uterine blood vessel, damage to the urinary bladder, respiratory complication and lower subsequent fertility. Why has this number ballooned out of proportion? ChildBirth Connection offers the following bulleted points: The following interconnected factors appear to contribute to the high cesarean rate: Low priority of enhancing womens own abilities to give birth, Side effects of common labor interventions, Refusal to offer the informed choice of vaginal birth, and limited awareness of harms that are more likely with cesarean section. (ChildBirth Connection) It is the job of every medical professional to provide and offer these answers to new and existing parents, not just for stats but for the well being of those they care for and the life they are going to bring into the world. Medical professionals tend to neglect the emotional and psychological aspects of procedures, but they are just as important as more and more women suffer from postpartum depression, these issues need to be addressed. So how are midwives and home birth so different from hospital births? The explanations are virtually endless, but revolve around a few central issues; following evidence-based practice, prevention instead of intervention, giving control of the birth process back to women, and trusting women’s ability to give birth. Childbirth is a natural and normal process in a womans’s life and a woman’s body is well designed to birth a baby. Midwives have a general philosophy that as long as everything is progressing smoothly, whether fast or slow, and there are no signs of tension or stress in the mother or baby, there is no need for interventions. Each womans labor is different and her experience is unique so there really is not a concept of a â€Å"normal labor and delivery†. Some labors are 30 minutes and others may last 3 days. Some women feel little or no pain during birth and other find the contractions excruciating. Some women prefer to eat in labor and some cant. Midwives respect and appreciate this uniqueness, where obstetricians find it pathological and must do something to make it more normal and thus controllable. Midwives follow a care model which revolves around pregnancy and birth as normal events. They focus on prevention rather than intervention or treatment. Every intervention discussed previously is rarely, if ever used in a typical midwife-attended home birth. support during labor is used instead of anesthetics or anesthesia. Midwives aim to build the mothers confidence in herself and in her body’s ability to give birth without the use of medical interventions by educating her about the various opinions available to her and encouraging her during the rough parts of the pregnancy, labor or delivery. Midwives encourage the partners to emotionally an physically support their pregnant partner, exercise and ear properly with their partner, as well as educate them about the entire process of bringing a child into the world. Medicine has led to a decrease in women’s confidence in their ability to give birth. Women have become used to hearing about or having medical interventions used during pregnancy and childbirth that they have begun to feel that they simply couldn’t have a baby without it. The decrease in women’s ability to give birth afflicts our society as a whole and has led to the increased dependence on the medical system. Women depend on their doctors to confirm their pregnancy with a blood test and then they rely on the doctor to tell them their exact due date. Ultrasounds to judge the growth rate of the developing baby has replaced relying on obtaining and adequate nutrition and having an appropriate weight gain. These views have caused so many women to think of pregnancy and childbirth as something that they have to go through in order to have a baby instead of a moving and power experience-after all how can it be a powerful experience when you are powerless. Low risk mothers should have the right to decide if she wants to delivery her baby at home. Who are we to rob them of the ultimate sacrifice?